A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that is caused by a blow to the head or body, a fall, or another injury that jars or shakes the brain inside the skull. Although there may be cuts or bruises on the head or face, there may be no other visible signs of a brain injury.
You don't have to pass out (lose consciousness) to have a concussion. Some people will have obvious symptoms of a concussion, such as passing out or forgetting what happened right before the injury. But other people won't. With rest, most people fully recover from a concussion. Some people recover within a few hours. Other people take a few weeks to recover.
It's important to know that after a concussion the brain is more sensitive to damage. So while you are recovering, be sure to avoid activities that might injure you again.
In rare cases, concussions cause more serious problems. Repeated concussions or a severe concussion may lead to long-lasting problems with movement, learning, or speaking. Because of the small chance of serious problems, it is important to contact a doctor if you or someone you know has symptoms of a concussion.
What causes a concussion?
Your brain is a soft organ that is surrounded by spinal fluid and protected by your hard skull. Normally, the fluid around your brain acts like a cushion that keeps your brain from banging into your skull. But if your head or your body is hit hard, your brain can crash into your skull and be injured.
There are many ways to get a concussion. Some common ways include fights, falls, playground injuries, car crashes, and bike accidents. Concussions can also happen while participating in any sport or activity such as football, boxing, hockey, soccer, skiing, or snowboarding.
What are the symptoms?
It is not always easy to know if someone has a concussion. You don't have to pass out (lose consciousness) to have a concussion.
Symptoms of a concussion range from mild to severe and can last for hours, days, weeks, or even months. If you notice any symptoms of a concussion, contact your doctor.
Symptoms of a concussion fit into four main categories:
Thinking and remembering
Not thinking clearly
Feeling slowed down
Not being able to concentrate
Not being able to remember new information
Nausea and vomiting
Fuzzy or blurry vision
Sensitivity to light or noise
Feeling tired or having no energy
Emotional and mood
Easily upset or angered
Nervous or anxious
Sleeping more than usual
Sleeping less than usual
Having a hard time falling asleep
Young children can have the same symptoms of a concussion as older children and adults. But sometimes it can be hard to tell if a small child has a concussion. Young children may also have symptoms like:
Crying more than usual.
Headache that does not go away.
Changes in the way they play or act.
Changes in the way they nurse, eat, or sleep.
Being upset easily or having more temper tantrums.
A sad mood.
Lack of interest in their usual activities or favorite toys.
Loss of new skills, such as toilet training.
Loss of balance and trouble walking.
Not being able to pay attention.
Concussions in older adults can also be dangerous. This is because concussions in older adults are often missed. If you are caring for an older adult who has had a fall, check him or her for symptoms of a concussion. Signs of a serious problem include a headache that gets worse or increasing confusion or both. See a doctor right away if you notice these signs. If you are caring for an older adult who takes blood thinners-warfarin (Coumadin) is an example-and who has had a fall, take him or her to a doctor right away, even if you don't see any symptoms of a concussion.
Sometimes after a concussion you may feel as if you are not functioning as well as you did before the injury. This is called postconcussive syndrome. New symptoms may develop, or you may continue to be bothered by symptoms from the injury, such as:
Changes in your ability to think, concentrate, or remember.
Headaches or blurry vision.
Changes in your sleep patterns, such as not being able to sleep or sleeping all the time.
Changes in your personality such as becoming angry or anxious for no clear reason.
Lack of interest in your usual activities.
Changes in your sex drive.
Dizziness, lightheadedness, or unsteadiness that makes standing or walking difficult.
If you have symptoms of postconcussive syndrome, call your doctor.
How is a concussion diagnosed?
Any person who may have had a concussion needs to see a doctor. If a doctor thinks that you have a concussion, he or she will ask questions about the injury. Your doctor may ask you questions that test your ability to pay attention and your learning and memory. Your doctor may also try to find out how quickly you can solve problems. He or she may also show you objects and then hide them and ask you to recall what they are. Then the doctor will check your strength, balance, coordination, reflexes, and sensation.
Neuropsychological tests have become more widely used after a concussion. These tests are only one of many ways that your doctor can find out how well you are thinking and remembering after a concussion. These tests can also show if you have any changes in emotions or mood after a concussion.
Sometimes a doctor will order imaging tests such as a CT scan or an MRI to make sure your brain is not bruised or bleeding.
Loghman Hakim Hospital Address: Makhsoos St, South Karegar Ave, Tehran, Iran tel: (+98) - 21 - 5541 - 9005(-11)
Mofid childre's Hostpital Address: Shariati Ave, Tehran, Iran tel: (+98)-21- 2222-7021(-9)